In addition to the options listed below, librarian Gail Gradowski developed a How to Find Country Information guide covering a wide range of resources. The "A Few Especially Delightful Resources" section looks particularly interesting.
ACE provides you with a variety of up-to-date election-related information and documentation on over 200 countries and territories.
BBC News Country Profiles
Succinct, and largely very current, profiles of countries of the world. Added bonus is the inclusion of some audio and video clips from the BBC.
CIA World Factbook
Provides current summary statistics. Clicking on the link here will take you to the latest edition. Start with the pulldown menu of countries.
International Crisis Group
"The International Crisis Group is an independent organisation working to prevent wars and shape policies that will build a more peaceful world."