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Citing Business Information

How do I cite ChatGPT?

Chatbots and "generative AI", such as ChatGPT, generate text from other sources. These tools co-opt others’ ideas without proper attribution.

If possible, students should always check and verify all of the information provided by ChatGPT, and cite the original sources provided, instead of the AI. 

Citation guides for generative AI text are emerging, slowly. At this time, there is limited guidance from APA and MLA on proper citation styles for ChatGPT. 

Since there are no specific guidelines for citing ChatGPT or other generative AI and since content from ChatGPT is technically "nonrecoverable" as it cannot be retrieved or linked, I recommend that you base your references for all ChatGPT content on the preferred APA style for personal communications.

ChatGPT does not have a publication date or author, therefore it cannot be cited in a references list in the same way as a book, article, or website. In other words, ChatGPT should not be listed on a "References" list. Instead, an in-text only APA citation is sufficient wherever you quote or paraphrase the ChatGPT response.

The following are just examples. Use them to build your own citation or reach out to me for further guidance on citing other OpenAI models:


APA In-Text Citation (Use your own Access Date):

(Paraphrase from OpenAI's ChatGPT AI landuage model, personal communication, March 9, 2023)

APA References Citation:

Not applicable / Leave off of References


MLA In-Text Citation:


MLA Works Cited Citation (Use your own Access Date):

OpenAI. ChatGPT. Accessed 16 Feb. 2023.


Important note: “Despite OpenAI’s promises, the company’s new (artificial intelligence) tool produces misinformation more frequently, and more persuasively, than its predecessor. Two months ago, ChatGPT-3.5 generated misinformation and hoaxes 80 percent of the time when prompted to do so in a NewsGuard exercise using 100 false narratives from its catalog of significant falsehoods in the news. NewsGuard found that its successor, ChatGPT-4, spread even more misinformation, advancing all 100 false narratives.”