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"Never Neutral" by Meredith Farkas
"Browsing Through Bias" by Sara A. Howard and Steven A. Knowlton
Knowlton and Howard reveal the inadequaces of the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH) with respect to African American literature and LGBTQIA studies, and interdisciplinary topics (not mutually exclusive,) the divide between a library patron's vocabulary and the LCSH's vocabulary, and the associated negative consequences. It also examines the potentially oppressive acquisition patterns and layouts of libraries and provides suggestions for librarians on how to connect with patrons who belong to marginalized groups.
"Three Decades Since Prejudices and Antipathies: A Study of Changes in the Library of Congress Subject Headings" by Steven Knowlton
"Algorithms of Oppression: How Search Engines Reinforce Racism" by Safiya Umoja Noble
Algorithms of Oppression by
Call Number: ZA4230 .N63 2018
Publication Date: 2018-02-20
"In Algorithms of Oppression, Safiya Umoja Noble challenges the idea that search engines like Google offer an equal playing field for all forms of ideas, identities, and activities. Data discrimination is a real social problem. Noble argues that the combination of private interests in promoting certain sites, along with the monopoly status of a relatively small number of Internet search engines, leads to a biased set of search algorithms that privilege whiteness and discriminate against people of color, especially women of color.
"Prejudices and Antipathies: A Tract on the LC Subject Heads Concerning People" Introduction by Sanford Berman
Berman argued how the Library of Congress subject headings cater only to white, Christian (especially Protestant,) middle to high-income, men. He asserts that they reflect a litany of assumptions about youth and women, and often take a colonialist perspective when it comes to race. Berman analyzed the shortcomings of subject headings that fell under the categories of race, religion, politics, law enforcement, sex, youth, and other related topics. He also discussed potential solutions to the inadequacies in these headings.
"Personal insights into critical librarianship" by Kevin L. Smith
"Revisiting Search Engine Bias" and "Search Engine Bias and the Demise of Search Engine Utopianism" by Eric Goldman
Goldman makes a compelling case for the negative consequences of having only one search engine -- read Google -- dominate the market. Like any other business, search engine companies are held in check by other search engine companies. Otherwise, a monopoly can form since no other company is setting a precedent for others to follow.
Goldman describes several invisible issues with search engines in this article. He reveals how web pages can be indexed with search terms that users create that the company that owns the website may not even agree with. Website rankings are often shaped by a programmer who has to make value judgments that may be influenced by their own biases. Furthermore, Goldman devises possible solutions to these issues such as making search engine algorithms transparent, publicly funded search engines, and mandated changes to ranking policies.
"Shaping the Web: Why the Politics of Search Engines Matters" by Helen Nissenbaum and Lucas D. Introna
"Web Search Multidisciplinary Perspectives" by Various Authors (edited by Amanda Spink and Michael Zimmer)
"Weapons of Math Destruction" by Cathy O'Neil
"Remembering the Howard University Librarian Who Decolonized the Way Books Were Catalogued" by Zita Cristina Nunes