As with any large scale enterprise, there are broad factors that play important roles in how policing is carried out. They also are a key to understanding the systemic character of policing problems and why it often is so difficult to reform police departments. These first two are very important when trying to hold police accountable for their actions.
1. "Qualified immunity" is a legal doctrine that shields government officials, including police officers, from being held personally liable in civil court for discretionary actions undertaken within their official capacity unless their actions violate "clearly established law." The Cato Institute does a good job of explaining the concept, both humorously and by examining court decisions. Some people believe qualified immunity must be scrapped entirely; others would try to reform it is some way.
8. Police in schools. An analysis of data from the Civil Rights Data Collection for the 2013-2014 school year revealed that black students made up 15.5 percent of school enrollment nationwide, but represented 33.4 percent of arrested students. The study also showed that arrests and referrals are more likely to occur in schools where police are present. Some schools have police on campus and some school districts (e.g., Los Angeles) have their own police departments. An alternative paradigm might be to remove police from schools and replace them with school counselors and mental health professionals in whole or in part.
9. Eliminate civil asset forfeiture laws. Civil asset forfeiture is a a legal tool that allows law enforcement officials to seize any property that they assert has been involved in a crime. Owners don't need to be arrested or be found guilty of a crime for a person's property to be seized. Once seized, it is often very difficult to reclaim the property. Some police departments use civil asset forfeiture as a means to supplement their budgets.
10. Prohibit ticketing and arrest quotas. Nobody likes these quotas, including most police, so this might be more of a local politics or budget reform than a police reform.
11. Prohibit racial/ethnic/religious profiling of any group